48. Ill-motivated Dhrtarastra
48 / Ill-motivated Dhåtaräñöra
Thus being ordered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Çré Kåñëa, Akrüra visited Hastinäpura. Hastinäpura is said to be the site of what is now New Delhi. The part of New Delhi, which is still known as Indraprastha, is accepted by people in general as the old capital of the Päëòavas. The very name Hastinäpura suggests that there were many hastés, or elephants. Because the Päëòavas kept many elephants in the capital, it was called Hastinäpura. Keeping elephants is a very expensive job; to keep many elephants, therefore, the kingdom must be very rich, and Hastinäpura was full of elephants, horses, chariots and other opulences. When Akrüra reached Hastinäpura, he saw that the capital was full of all kinds of opulences. The kings of Hastinäpura were taken to be the ruling kings of the whole world. Their fame was widely spread throughout the entire kingdom, and their administration was conducted under the good counsel of learned brähmaëas.
After seeing the very opulent capital city, Akrüra met King Dhåtaräñöra. He also saw grandfather Bhéñma sitting with him. After meeting them, he went to see Vidura and then Vidura's sister, Kunté. One after another, he saw the son of Somadatta, and the King of Bähléka, Droëäcärya, Kåpäcärya, Karëa and Suyodhana. (Suyodhana is another name of Duryodhana.) He saw the five Päëòava brothers and other friends and relatives living in the city. Akrüra was known as the son of Gändé, so whomever he met was very pleased to receive him. He was offered a good seat at his receptions, and he inquired all about the his relatives' welfare and other activities.
Since he was deputed by Lord Kåñëa to visit Hastinäpura, it is understood that he was very intelligent in studying a diplomatic situation. Dhåtaräñöra was unlawfully occupying the throne after the death of the King Päëòu, despite the presence of Päëòu's sons. Akrüra wanted to study the whole situation by remaining there. He could understand very well that ill-motivated Dhåtaräñöra was much inclined in favor of his own sons. In fact, Dhåtaräñöra had already usurped the kingdom and was now instigating and planning to dispose of the five Päëòava brothers. Akrüra knew also that all the sons of Dhåtaräñöra, headed by Duryodhana, were very crooked politicians. Dhåtaräñöra did not act in accordance with the good instruction given by Bhéñma and Vidura, but he was being conducted by the ill instruction of such persons as Karëa, Çakuni and others. Akrüra decided to stay in Hastinäpura for a few months to study the whole political situation.
Gradually Akrüra learned from Kunté and Vidura that Dhåtaräñöra was very intolerant and envious of the five Päëòava brothers because of their extraordinary learning in military science and their greatly developed bodily strength. They acted as true chivalrous heroes, exhibited all the good qualities of kñatriyas, and were very responsible princes, always thinking of the welfare of the citizens. Akrüra also learned that the envious Dhåtaräñöra, in consultation with his ill-advised son, had tried to kill the Päëòavas by poisoning them.
Akrüra happened to be one of the cousins of Kunté; therefore, after meeting him, she began to inquire about her paternal relatives. Thinking of her birthplace, she began to cry. She asked Akrüra whether her father, mother, brothers, sisters and other friends at home were still remembering her. She especially inquired about Kåñëa and Balaräma, her glorious nephews. She asked, "Does Kåñëa, who is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is very affectionate to His devotees, remember my sons? Does Balaräma remember us?" Inside herself, Kunté felt like a she-deer in the midst of tigers, and actually her position was like that. After the death of her husband, King Päëòu, she was supposed to take care of the five Päëòava children, but Dhåtaräñöra was always planning to kill them. She was certainly living as a poor innocent animal in the midst of several tigers. Being a devotee of Lord Kåñëa, she was always thinking of Him and expected that one day Kåñëa would come and save them from their dangerous position. She inquired from Akrüra whether Kåñëa proposed to come to advise the fatherless Päëòavas how to get free of the intriguing policy of Dhåtaräñöra and his sons. By talking with Akrüra about all these affairs, she felt herself helpless and began to exclaim: "My dear Kåñëa, my dear Kåñëa, You are the supreme mystic, the Supersoul of the universe. You are the real well-wisher of the whole universe. My dear Govinda, at this time You are far away from me, yet I pray to surrender unto Your lotus feet. At the present moment I am very much griefstricken with my five fatherless sons. I can fully understand that but for Your lotus feet there is no shelter or protection. Your lotus feet can deliver all aggrieved souls because You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One can be safe from the clutches of repeated birth and death by Your mercy only. My dear Kåñëa, You are the supreme pure one, the Supersoul and the master of all yogés. What can I say? I can simply offer my respectful obeisances unto You. Accept me as Your fully surrendered devotee."
Although Kåñëa was not present before her, Kunté offered her prayers to Him as if she were in His presence face to face. This is possible for anyone following in the footsteps of Kunté. Kåñëa does not have to be physically present everywhere. He is actually present everywhere by spiritual potency, and one simply has to surrender unto Him sincerely. When Kunté was offering her prayers very feelingly to Kåñëa, she could not check herself and began to cry loudly before Akrüra. Vidura was also present, and both Akrüra and Vidura became very sympathetic to the mother of the Päëòavas. They began to solace her by glorifying her sons, Yudhiñöhira, Arjuna and Bhéma. They pacified her, saying that her sons were extraordinarily powerful; she should not be perturbed about them, since they were born of great demigods, Yamaräja, Indra and Väyu.
Akrüra decided to return and report on the extreme circumstances in which he found Kunté and her five sons. He first wanted to give good advice to Dhåtaräñöra, who was so favorably inclined toward his own son and unfavorably inclined toward the Päëòavas. When Kunté and Dhåtaräñöra were sitting among friends and relatives, Akrüra began to address him, calling him "Värcitravérya." Värcitravérya means the son of Vicitravérya. Vicitravérya was the name of the father of Dhåtaräñöra, but Dhåtaräñöra was not actually the begotten son of Vicitravérya. He was the begotten son of Vyäsadeva. Formerly it was the system that if a man were unable to beget a child, his brother could beget a child in the womb of his wife. That system is now forbidden in this age of Kali. Akrüra called Dhåtaräñöra "Värcitravérya" sarcastically because he was not actually begotten by his father. He was the son of Vyäsadeva. When a child was begotten in the wife by the husband's brother, the child was claimed by the husband, but of course the child was not begotten by the husband. This sarcastic remark pointed out that Dhåtaräñöra was falsely claiming the throne on hereditary grounds. Actually the son of Päëòu was the rightful king, and in the presence of Päëòu's sons, the Päëòavas, Dhåtaräñöra should not have occupied the throne.
Akrüra then said, "My dear son of Vicitravérya, you have unlawfully usurped the throne of the Päëòavas. Anyway, somehow or other you are now on the throne. Therefore I beg to advise you to please rule the kingdom on moral and ethical principles. If you do so and try to teach your subjects in that way, then your name and fame will be perpetual." Akrüra hinted that although Dhåtaräñöra was ill-treating his nephews, the Päëòavas, they happened to be his subjects. "Even if you treat them not as the owners of the throne, but as your subjects, you should impartially think of their welfare as though they were your own sons. But if you do not follow this principle and act in just the opposite way, then you will be unpopular among your subjects, and in the next life you will have to live in a hellish condition. I therefore hope you will treat your sons and the sons of Päëòu equally." Akrüra hinted that if Dhåtaräñöra did not treat the Päëòavas and his sons as equals, then surely there would be a fight between the two camps of cousins. Since the Päëòavas cause was just, they would come out victorious, and the sons of Dhåtaräñöra would be killed. This was a prophecy told by Akrüra to Dhåtaräñöra.
Akrüra further advised Dhåtaräñöra, "In this material world, no one can remain as an eternal companion to another. By chance only we assemble together in the family, in the society, in the community or in the nation, but at the end, because every one of us has to give up the body, we must be separated. One should not, therefore, be unnecessarily affectionate toward family members." Dhåtaräñöra's affection was also unlawful and did not show much intelligence. In plain words, Akrüra hinted to Dhåtaräñöra that his staunch family affection was due to his gross ignorance of fact. Although we appear to be combined together in family, society or nation, each one of us has an individual destiny. Everyone takes birth according to individual past work; therefore everyone has to individually enjoy or suffer the result of his own karma. There is no possibility of improving one's destiny by cooperate living. Sometimes it happens that one's father accumulates wealth by illegal ways, and the son takes away the money, although it is hard-earned by the father. It is just like a small fish in the ocean who eats the material body of the large, old fish. One ultimately cannot accumulate wealth illegally for the gratification of his family, society, community or nation. That many great empires which developed in the past are no longer existing because their wealth was squandered away by later descendants is an illustration of this principle. One who does not know this subtle law of fruitive activities and thus gives up the principles of moral and ethical principles only carries with him the reactions of his sinful activities. His ill-gotten wealth and possessions are taken by someone else, and he goes to the darkest region of hellish life. One should not, therefore, accumulate more wealth than is allotted to him by destiny; otherwise he will be factually blind to his own interest. Instead of fulfilling his self-interest, he will act in just the opposite way for his own downfall.
Akrüra continued: "My dear Dhåtaräñöra, I beg to advise you not to be blind about the fact of this material existence. Material conditional life, either in distress or in happiness, is to be accepted as a dream. One should try to bring his mind and senses under control and live very peacefully for spiritual advancement in Kåñëa consciousness." In the Caitanya-caritämåta it is said that except for persons who are in Kåñëa consciousness, everyone is always in a disturbed condition of mind and is full of anxiety. Even those who are trying for liberation, or merging into the Brahman effulgence, or the yogés who are trying to achieve perfection in mystic power, cannot have peace of mind. Pure devotees of Kåñëa have no demands to make of Kåñëa. They are simply satisfied with service to Him. Actual peace and mental tranquillity can be attained only in perfect Kåñëa consciousness.
After hearing moral instructions from Akrüra, Dhåtaräñöra replied, "My dear Akrüra, you are very charitable in giving me good instructions, but unfortunately I cannot accept it. A person who is destined to die does not utilize the effect of nectar, although it may be administered to him. I can understand that your instructions are very valuable. Unfortunately, they do not stay in my flickering mind, just as the glittering lightning in the sky does not stay fixed in a cloud. I can understand only that no one can stop the onward progress of the supreme will. I understand that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kåñëa, has appeared in the family of the Yadus in order to decrease the overburdened load of this earth."
Dhåtaräñöra gave hints to Akrüra that he had complete faith in Kåñëa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. At the same time, he was very much partial to his family members. In the very near future, Kåñëa would vanquish all the members of his family, and in a helpless condition, Dhåtaräñöra would take shelter of Kåñëa's feet. In order to show His special favor to a devotee, Kåñëa usually takes away all the objects of his material affection. He thus forces the devotee to be materially helpless, with no alternative than to accept the lotus feet of Kåñëa. This actually happened to Dhåtaräñöra after the end of the Battle of Kurukñetra.
Dhåtaräñöra could realize two opposing factors acting before him. He could understand that Kåñëa was there to remove all the unnecessary burdens of the world. His sons were an unnecessary burden, and so he expected that they would be killed. At the same time, he could not rid himself of his unlawful affection for his sons. Understanding these two contradictory factors, he began to offer his respectful obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. "The contradictory ways of material existence are very difficult to understand; they can only be taken as the inconceivable execution of the plan of the Supreme, who by His inconceivable energy creates this material world and enters into it and sets into action the three modes of nature. When everything is created, He enters into each and every living entity and into the smallest atom. No one can understand the incalculable plans of the Supreme Lord."
After hearing this statement, Akrüra could clearly understand that Dhåtaräñöra was not going to change his policy of discriminating against the Päëòavas in favor of his sons. He at once took leave of his friends in Hastinäpura and returned to his home in the kingdom of the Yadus. After returning home, he vividly informed Lord Kåñëa and Balaräma of the actual situation in Hastinäpura and the intentions of Dhåtaräñöra. Akrüra was sent to Hastinäpura by Kåñëa to study. By the grace of the Lord, he was successful and informed Kåñëa about the actual situation.
Thus ends the Bhaktivedanta purport of the Forty-eighth Chapter of Kåñëa, "Ill-motivated Dhåtaräñöra."