13. The Stealing of the Boys and Calves by Brahma
13 / The Stealing of the Boys and Calves by Brahmä
Çukadeva Gosvämé was very much encouraged when Mahäräja Parékñit asked him why the cowherd boys did not discuss the death of Aghäsura until after one year had passed. He explained thus: "My dear King, you are making the subject matter of the transcendental pastimes of Kåñëa fresher by your inquisitiveness."
It is said that it is the nature of a devotee to constantly apply his mind, energy, words, ears, etc., in hearing and chanting about Kåñëa. This is called Kåñëa consciousness, and for one who is rapt in hearing and chanting Kåñëa, the subject matter never becomes hackneyed or old. That is the significance of transcendental subject matter in contrast to material subject matter. Material subject matter becomes stale, and one cannot hear a certain subject for a long time; he wants change. But as far as transcendental subject matter is concerned, it is called nityanavanaväyamäna. This means that one can go on chanting and hearing about the Lord and never feel tired but will remain fresh and eager to hear more and more.
It is the duty of the spiritual master to disclose all confidential subject matter to the inquisitive and sincere disciple. Thus Çukadeva Gosvämé began to explain why the killing of Aghäsura was not discussed until one year had passed. Çukadeva Gosvämé told the King, "Now hear of this secret with attention. After saving His friends from the mouth of Aghäsura and after killing the demon, Lord Kåñëa brought His friends to the bank of Yamunä and addressed them as follows: 'My dear friends, just see how this spot is very nice for taking lunch and playing on the soft sandy Yamunä bank. You can see how the lotus flowers in the water are beautifully blown and how they distribute their flavor all around. The chirping of the birds along with cooing of the peacocks, surrounded by the whispering of the leaves in the trees, combine and present sound-vibrations that echo one another. And this just enriches the beautiful scenery created by the trees here. Let us have our lunch in this spot because it is already late and we are feeling hungry. Let the calves remain near us, and let them drink water from the Yamunä. While we engage in our lunch-taking, the calves may engage in eating the soft grasses that are in this spot.'"
On hearing this proposal from Kåñëa, all the boys became very glad and said, "Certainly, let us all sit down here to take our lunch." They then let loose the calves to eat the soft grass. Sitting down on the ground and keeping Kåñëa in the center, they began to open their different boxes brought from home. Lord Çré Kåñëa was seated in the center of the circle, and all the boys kept their faces toward Him. They ate and constantly enjoyed seeing the Lord face to face. Kåñëa appeared to be the whorl of a lotus flower, and the boys surrounding Him appeared to be its different petals. The boys collected flowers, leaves of flowers and barks of trees and placed them under their different boxes, and thus they began to eat their lunch, keeping company with Kåñëa. While taking lunch, each boy began to manifest different kinds of relations with Kåñëa, and they enjoyed each other's company with joking words. While thus enjoying lunch with His friends, Lord Kåñëa's flute was pushed within the belt of His cloth, and His bugle and cane were pushed in on the left-hand side of His cloth. He was holding a lump of foodstuff prepared with yogurt, butter, rice and pieces of fruit salad in His left palm, which could be seen through His petal-like finger joints. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who accepts the results of all great sacrifices, was laughing and joking, enjoying lunch with His friends in Våndävana. And thus the scene was being observed by the demigods from heaven. As for the boys, they were simply enjoying transcendental bliss in the company of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
At that time, the calves that were pasturing nearby entered into the deep forest, allured by new grasses, and gradually went out of sight. When the boys saw that the calves were not nearby, they became afraid for their safety, and they immediately cried out, "Kåñëa!" Kåñëa is the killer of fear personified. Everyone is afraid of fear personified, but fear personified is afraid of Kåñëa. By crying out the word "Kåñëa," the boys at once transcended the fearful situation. Out of His great affection, Kåñëa did not want His friends to give up their pleasing lunch engagement and go searching for the calves. He therefore said, "My dear friends, you need not interrupt your lunch. Go on enjoying. I am going personally where the calves are." Thus Lord Kåñëa immediately started to search out the calves in the caves and bushes. He searched in the mountain holes and in the forests, but nowhere could He find them.
At the time when Aghäsura was killed and the demigods were looking on the incident with great surprise, Brahmä, who was born out of the lotus flower growing out of the navel of Viñëu, also came to see. He was surprised how a little boy like Kåñëa could act so wonderfully. Although he was informed that the little cowherd boy was the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he wanted to see more glorified pastimes of the Lord, and thus he stole all the calves and cowherd boys and took them to a different place. Lord Kåñëa, therefore, in spite of searching for the calves, could not find them, and He even lost His boy friends on the bank of the Yamunä where they had been taking their lunch. In the form of a cowherd boy, Lord Kåñëa was very little in comparison to Brahmä, but because He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He could immediately understand that all the calves and boys had been stolen by Brahmä. Kåñëa thought, "Brahmä has taken away all the boys and calves. How can I alone return to Våndävana? The mothers will be aggrieved!"
Therefore in order to satisfy the mothers of His friends as well as to convince Brahmä of the supremacy of the Personality of Godhead, He immediately expanded Himself as the cowherd boys and calves. In the Vedas it is said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead expandes Himself in so many living entities by His energy. Therefore it was not very difficult for Him to expand Himself again into so many boys and calves. He expanded Himself to become exactly like the boys, who were of all different features, facial and bodily construction, and who were different in their clothing and ornaments and in their behavior and personal activities. In other words, everyone has different tastes; being individual soul, each person has entirely different activities and behavior. Yet Kåñëa exactly expanded Himself into all the different positions of the individual boys. He also became the calves, who were also of different sizes, colors, activities, etc. This was possible because everything is an expansion of Kåñëa's energy. In the Viñëu Puräëa it is said, parasya brahmaëaù çakti. Whatever we actually see in the cosmic manifestation--be it matter or the activities of the living entities--is simply an expansion of the energies of the Lord, as heat and light are the different expansions of fire.
Thus expanding Himself as the boys and calves in their individual capacities, and surrounded by such expansions of Himself, Kåñëa entered the village of Våndävana. The residents had no knowledge of what had happened. After entering the village, Våndävana, all the calves entered their respective cowsheds, and the boys also went to their respective mothers and homes.
The mothers of the boys heard the vibration of their flutes before their entrance, and to receive them, they came out of their homes and embraced them. And out of maternal affection, milk was flowing from their breasts, and they allowed the boys to drink it. However, their offering was not exactly to their boys but to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who had expanded Himself into such boys. This was another chance for all the mothers of Våndävana to feed the Supreme Personality of Godhead with their own milk. Therefore Lord Kåñëa gave not only Yaçodä the chance of feeding Him, but this time He gave the chance to all the elderly gopés.
All the boys began to deal with their mothers as usual, and the mothers also, on the approach of evening, began to bathe their respective children, decorate them with tilaka and ornaments and give them necessary food after the day's labor. The cows also, who were away in the pasturing ground, returned in the evening and began to call their respective calves. The calves immediately came to their mothers, and the mothers began to lick the bodies of the calves. These relations between the cows and the gopés with their calves and boys remained unchanged, although actually the original calves and boys were not there. Actually the cows' affection for their calves and the elderly gopés' affection for the boys causelessly increased. Their affection increased naturally, even though the calves and boys were not their offspring. Although the cows and elderly gopés of Våndävana had greater affection for Kåñëa than for their own offspring, after this incident, their affection for their offspring increased exactly as it did for Kåñëa. For one year continuoually, Kåñëa Himself expanded as the calves and cowherd boys and was present in the pasturing ground.
As it is stated in the Bhagavad-gétä, Kåñëa's expansion is situated in everyone's heart as the Supersoul. Similarly, instead of expanding Himself as the Supersoul, He expanded Himself as a portion of calves and cowherd boys for one continuous year.
One day, when Kåñëa, along with Balaräma, was maintaining the calves in the forest, They saw some cows grazing on the top of Govardhana Hill. The cows could see down into the valley where the calves were being taken care of by the boys. Suddenly, on sighting their calves, the cows began to run towards them. They leaped downhill with joined front and rear legs. The cows were so melted with affection for their calves that they did not care about the rough path from the top of Govardhana Hill down to the pasturing ground. They began to approach the calves with their milk bags full of milk, and they raised their tails upwards. When they were coming down the hill, their milk bags were pouring milk on the ground out of intense maternal affection for the calves, although they were not their own calves. These cows had their own calves, and the calves that were grazing beneath Govardhana Hill were larger; they were not expected to drink milk directly from the milk bag but were satisfied with the grass. Yet all the cows came immediately and began to lick their bodies, and the calves also began to suck milk from the milk bags. There appeared to be a great bondage of affection between the cows and calves.
When the cows were running down from the top of Govardhana Hill, the men who were taking care of them tried to stop them. Elderly cows are taken care of by the men, and the calves are taken care of by the boys; and as far as possible, the calves are kept separate from the cows, so that the calves do not drink all the available milk. Therefore the men who were taking care of the cows on the top of Govardhana Hill tried to stop them, but they failed. Baffled by their failure, they were feeling ashamed and angry. They were very unhappy, but when they came down and saw their children taking care of the calves, they all of a sudden became very affectionate toward the children. It was very astonishing. Although the men came down disappointed, baffled and angry, as soon as they saw their own children, their hearts melted with great affection. At once their anger, dissatisfaction and unhappiness disappeared. They began to show paternal love for the children, and with great affection they lifted them in their arms and embraced them. They began to smell their children's heads and enjoy their company with great happiness. After embracing their children, the men again took the cows back to the top of Govardhana Hill. Along the way they began to think of their children, and affectionate tears fell from their eyes.
When Balaräma saw this extraordinary exchange of affection between the cows and their calves and between the fathers and their children--when neither the calves nor the children needed so much care--He began to wonder why this extraordinary thing happened. He was astonished to see all the residents of Våndävana so affectionate for their own children, exactly as they had been for Kåñëa. Similarly, the cows had grown affectionate for their calves--as much as for Kåñëa. Balaräma therefore concluded that the extraordinary show of affection was something mystical, either performed by the demigods or by some powerful man. Otherwise, how could this wonderful change take place? He concluded that this mystical change must have been caused by Kåñëa, whom Balaräma considered His worshipable Personality of Godhead. He thought, "It was arranged by Kåñëa, and even I could not check its mystic power." Thus Balaräma understood that all those boys and calves were only expansions of Kåñëa.
Balaräma inquired from Kåñëa about the actual situation. He said, "My dear Kåñëa, in the beginning I thought that all these cows, calves and cowherd boys were either great sages and saintly persons or demigods, but at the present it appears that they are actually Your expansions. They are all You; You Yourself are playing as the calves and cows and boys. What is the mystery of this situation? Where have those other calves and cows and boys gone? And why are You expanding Yourself as the cows, calves and boys? Will You kindly tell Me what is the cause?" At the request of Balaräma, Kåñëa briefly explained the whole situation: how the calves and boys were stolen by Brahmä and how He was concealing the incident by expanding Himself so people would not know that the original cows, calves, and boys were missing.
While Kåñëa and Balaräma were talking, Brahmä returned after a moment's interval (according to the duration of his life). We have information of Lord Brahmä's duration of life from the Bhagavad-gétä: 1,000 times the duration of the four ages, or 4,300,000 x 1,000, comprise Brahmä's twelve hours. Similarly, one moment of Brahmä is equal to one year of our solar calculation. After one moment of Brahmä's calculation, Brahmä came back to see the fun caused by his stealing the boys and calves. But he was also afraid that he was playing with fire. Kåñëa was his master, and he had played mischief for fun by taking away His calves and boys. He was really anxious, so he did not stay away very long; he came back after a moment (of his calculation). He saw that all the boys, calves and cows were playing with Kåñëa in the same way as when he had come upon them, although he was confident that he had taken them and made them lie down asleep under the spell of his mystic power. Brahmä began to think, "All the boys, calves and cows were taken away by me, and I know they are still sleeping. How is it that a similar batch of cows, boys and calves are playing with Kåñëa? Is it that they are not influenced by my mystic power? Have they been playing continually for one year with Kåñëa?" Brahmä tried to understand who they were and how they were uninfluenced by his mystic power, but he could not ascertain it. In other words, he himself came under the spell of his own mystic power. The influence of his mystic power appeared like snow in darkness or the glow worm in daytime. During the night's darkness, the glow worm can show some glittering power, and the snow piled up on the top of a hill or on the ground can shine during the daytime. But at night the snow has no silver glitter; nor does the glow worm have any illuminating power during the daytime. Similarly, when the small mystic power exhibited by Brahmä was before the mystic power of Kåñëa, it was just like snow or the glow worm. When a man of small mystic power wants to show potency in the presence of greater mystic power, he diminishes his own influence; he does not increase it. Even a great personality like Brahmä, when he wanted to show his mystic power before Kåñëa, became ludicrous. Brahmä was thus confused about his own mystic power.
In order to convince Brahmä that all those cows, calves and boys were not the original ones, the cows, calves, and boys who were playing with Kåñëa transformed into Viñëu forms. Actually, the original ones were sleeping under the spell of Brahmä's mystic power, but the present ones, seen by Brahmä, were all immediate expansions of Kåñëa, or Viñëu. Viñëu is the expansion of Kåñëa, so the Viñëu forms appeared before Brahmä. All the Viñëu forms were of bluish color and dressed in yellow garments; all of Them had four hands decorated with club, disc, lotus flower and conchshell. On Their heads were glittering golden jeweled helmets; They were bedecked with pearls and earrings, and garlanded with beautiful flowers. On Their chests was the mark of çrévatsa; Their arms were decorated with armlets and other jewelry. Their necks were smooth just like the conchshell, Their legs were decorated with bells, Their waists decorated with golden bells, and Their fingers decorated with jeweled rings. Brahmä also saw that upon the whole body of Lord Viñëu, fresh tulasé buds were thrown, beginning from His lotus feet up to the top of the head. Another significant feature of the Viñëu forms was that all of Them were looking transcendentally beautiful. Their smiling resembled the moonshine, and Their glancing resembled the early rising of the sun. Just by Their glancing They appeared as the creators and maintainers of the modes of ignorance and passion. Viñëu represents the mode of goodness, Brahmä represents the mode of passion, and Lord Çiva represents the mode of ignorance. Therefore as maintainer of everything in the cosmic manifestation, Viñëu is also creator and maintainer of Brahmä and Lord Çiva.
After this manifestation of Lord Viñëu, Brahmä saw that many other Brahmäs and Çivas and demigods and even insignificant living entities down to the ants and very small straws--movable and immovable living entities--were dancing, surrounding Lord Viñëu. Their dancing was accompanied by various kinds of music, and all of Them were worshiping Lord Viñëu. Brahmä realized that all those Viñëu forms were complete, beginning from the aëimä perfection of becoming small like an atom, up to becoming infinite like the cosmic manifestation. All the mystic powers of Brahmä, Çiva, all the demigods and the twenty-four elements of cosmic manifestation were fully represented in the person of Viñëu. By the influence of Lord Viñëu, all subordinate mystic powers were engaged in His worship. He was being worshiped by time, space, cosmic manifestation, reformation, desire, activity and the three qualities of material nature. Lord Viñëu, Brahmä also realized, is the reservoir of all truth, knowledge and bliss. He is the combination of three transcendental features, namely eternity, knowledge, and bliss, and He is the object of worship by the followers of the Upaniñads. Brahmä realized that all the different forms of cows, boys and calves transformed into Viñëu forms were not transformed by a mysticism of the type that a yogé or a demigod can display by specific powers invested in him. The cows, calves and boys transformed into Viñëu mürtis, or Viñëu forms were not displays of Viñëu mäyä or Viñëu energy, but were Viñëu Himself. The respective qualifications of Viñëu and Viñëu mäyä are just like fire and heat. In the heat there is the qualification of fire, namely warmth; and yet heat is not fire. The manifestation of the Viñëu forms of the boys, cows and calves was not like the heat, but rather the fire--they were all actually Viñëu. Factually, the qualification of Viñëu is full truth, full knowledge and full bliss. Another example can be given with material objects, which are reflected in many, many forms. For example, the sun is reflected in many waterpots, but the reflections of the sun in many pots are not actually the sun. There is no actual heat and light from the sun in the pot, although it appears as the sun. But the forms which Kåñëa assumed were each and every one full Viñëu. Satyam means truth, jïänam, full knowledge, and änanda, full bliss.
Transcendental forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His person are so great that the impersonal followers of the Upaniñads cannot reach the platform of knowledge to understand them. Particularly, the transcendental forms of the Lord are beyond the reach of the impersonalists who can only understand, through the studies of Upaniñads, that the Absolute Truth is not matter and that the Absolute Truth is not materially restricted by limited potency. Lord Brahmä understood Kåñëa and His expansion into Viñëu forms and could understand that, due to the expansion of energy of the Supreme Lord, everything movable and immovable within the cosmic manifestation is existing.
When Brahmä was thus standing baffled in his limited power and conscious of his limited activities within the eleven senses, he could at least realize that he was also a creation of the material energy, just like a puppet. As a puppet has no independent power to dance but dances according to the direction of the puppet master, so the demigods and living entities are all subordinate to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As it is stated in the Caitanya-caritämåta, the only master is Kåñëa, and all others are servants. The whole world is under the waves of the material spell, and beings are floating like straws in water. So their struggle for existence is continuing. But as soon as one becomes conscious that he is the eternal servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this mäyä or illusory struggle for existence is immediately stopped.
Lord Brahmä, who has full control over the goddess of learning and who is considered to be the best authority in Vedic knowledge, was thus perplexed, being unable to understand the extraordinary power manifested in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the mundane world, even a personality like Brahmä is unable to understand the potential mystic power of the Supreme Lord. Not only did Brahmä fail to understand, but he was perplexed even to see the display which was being manifested by Kåñëa before him.
Kåñëa took compassion upon Brahmä's inability to see even how He was displaying the force of Viñëu in transforming Himself into cows and cowherd boys, and thus, while fully manifesting the Viñëu expansion, He suddenly pulled His curtain of yogamäyä over the scene. In the Bhagavad-gétä it is said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not visible due to the curtain spread by yogamäyä. That which covers the reality is mahämäyä, or the external energy, which does not allow a conditioned soul to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead beyond the cosmic manifestation. But the energy which partially manifests the Supreme Personality of Godhead and partially does not allow one to see, is called yogamäyä. Brahmä is not an ordinary conditioned soul. He is far, far superior to all the demigods, and yet he could not comprehend the display of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore Kåñëa willingly stopped manifesting any further potency. The conditioned soul not only becomes bewildered, but he is completely unable to understand. The curtain of yogamäyä was drawn so that Brahmä would not become more and more perplexed.
When Brahmä was relieved from his perplexity, he appeared to be awakened from an almost dead state, and he began to open his eyes with great difficulty. Thus he could see the eternal cosmic manifestation with common eyes. He saw all around him the super-excellent view of Våndävana--full with trees--which is the source of life for all living entities. He could appreciate the transcendental land of Våndävana where all the living entities are transcendental to ordinary nature. In the forest of Våndävana, even ferocious animals like tigers and others live peacefully along with the deer and human being. He could understand that, because of the presence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in Våndävana, that place is transcendental to all other places and that there is no lust and greed there.
Brahmä thus found Çré Kåñëa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, playing the part of a small cowherd boy; he saw that little child with a lump of food in His left hand, searching out His friends, cows and calves, just as He was actually doing one year before, after their disappearance.
Immediately Brahmä descended from his great swan carrier and fell down before the Lord just like a golden stick. The word used among the Vaiñëavas for offering respect is daëòavat. This word means falling down like a stick; one should offer respect to the superior Vaiñëava by falling down straight, with his body just like a stick. So Brahmä fell down before the Lord just like a stick to offer respect; and because the complexion of Brahmä is golden, he appeared to be like a golden stick lying down before Lord Kåñëa. All the four helmets on the heads of Brahmä touched the lotus feet of Kåñëa. Brahmä, being very joyful, began to shed tears, and he washed the lotus feet of Kåñëa with his tears. Repeatedly he fell and rose as he recalled the wonderful activities of the Lord. After repeating obeisances for a long time, Brahmä stood up and smeared his hands over his eyes. Seeing the Lord before him, he, trembling, began to offer prayers with great respect, humility and attention.
Thus ends the Bhaktivedanta purport of the Thirteenth Chapter of Kåñëa, "The Stealing of the Boys and Calves by Brahmä."